Территориальное устройство России
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The whole Russia
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About this site: appointment

What is «the territorial device of Russia "?

First of all, this the most typical and widely-spread thing for any state. Because of that the federal division is on the top level there. Subjects of Federation (regions) divided to administrative and territorial units. There are cities and towns, districts and district centers of Russia, sit type settlements, rural administrations (they may also have other names) and rural settlements. There are institutions of local government are formed on the territory of these administrative and territorial units, therefore their territorial basis is a part of the territorial division of the country.

Russia as the largest country in terms of land size has a various natural and climatic zones. The various natural regions of the country, which have internal unity and original individual features are formed various systems of physical and geographical areas.

Economic division into districts has a very important role in the territorial device in Russia. The difference between economic regions is caused not only by distinctions in natural-resource potential, a climate and grounds but also by specialization of the industry and agriculture, based on a territorial division of labor.
Traditionally economic division into districts is characterized by three-stage system of territorial formations: macro and micro division into districts. Social and economic division into districts is an allocation of regions at the bottom level that is micro division into districts or fractional division into districts the greatest action at which is rendered social, demographic, social - infrastructural character, but not an economic character.
Both in Russian empire, the USSR and in modern Russia many ministries and departments have the territorial structures, which are formed departmental division into districts independently of the administrative territorial device and economic division into districts of the country. About hundred federal departments have their divisions in regions, with have diversified structure. It is necessary to note, that the question of departmental division into districts is insufficiently reflected in an open seal and it is a weak part of the given project.
Eight inter-regional associations of economic interaction are special kind of division into districts, which are united heads of regions of Russia.

Federal districts (7), created in 2000 by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation are actually the departmental division into districts of Administration of the President. But both on the sizes and on value, federal districts and МАЭВ can be considered at one level with economic regions.
There is also ecological, historical, national or ethnic and political division into districts of territory, which is influenced on the administrative and territorial device of the country.

There are seven basic levels of territorial hierarchy in Russia: which are reflected in an information retrieval system on a site.

 Speaking about Russia, this concept a not absolutely corresponds to concept of "Russian Federation". At the historical review of the territorial device of the country it is incorrect and also it is impossible to be limited with modern borders of the country. That is why it was necessary to allocate a level of the territory, which is standed above modern borders. It is called «Russia is farther than the borders» and is designated by figure «0» ("zero").

We consider our theme widely, especially theoretical and problem questions and, of course, we shall compare Russia to other countries. That’s why we have included in number of sources materials on the territorial device of other countries. They are marked in a level of territory in figure “1” (“- unit”).

Special aspect of the territorial device of the country as on a vertical (various kinds of the device of territory of the country) and across (various territorial levels) should be supplemented with time aspect. We should consider the territorial device to the country in the past, the present and the future. These three time categories, theory and problem define division of a theme of a site into five sections.

  For whom it was created?

Our site can be interesting for already schoolchildren, when they begin to study economic geography (the population and facilities (an economy)) of Russia. And, certainly, for school teachers of geography. Though, we hope that it will be useful and interesting also to other teachers, who teach other disciplines, first of all humanitarian and public.

Certainly students and teachers of high schools will be the most numerous users of a site. Professional work of the author substantially defines this fact (see Founders).  Specialities and the investigated disciplines, which are mentioned in materials of a site, have rather wide scope. This fact  is possible to determine even from the textbooks included in the list of sources. So a range of specialists for whom this site will be interesting to is vast: economists and lawyers, geographers and historians, managers and political scientists, architects and topographers, ecologists, sociologists and psychologists.

But, the closest discipline to a theme of a site is «the Territorial organization of the population (society) ", and a main high school speciality – «the State and municipal management» (061000). The author’s long-term practical experience has affected on it.

The site will be useful for post-graduate students and those, who receiving the second higher education, raising the qualification (to students of academies and rates).

Our site will be useful not only in the educational purposes. There are a lot of separate ready works, which can help to prepare new works: from abstracts up to dissertations, from clauses (articles) up to pornographies.
The site is intended for the journalists taking interviews at politicians, and for the politicians answering to questions of the journalists - up to the supreme person of the state. (his post is named in the motto of a site ). Science officers and deputies, heads and experts - managers of all levels - all of them are potential users of a site.

And, at last, "people" - users of Internet, who know Russian and all people are interested in dialogue in this language, fot those who is interested in the past, present and the future of the biggest state in the world.


Why was the site created?

After 20 years of studying of a theme with gathering materials " on a paper " and only a half-year in the Internet and we have made a conclusion that we have a lot of new material, which are not represented in a network. But there are numerous publications in MASS-MEDIA in which there are a lot of various opinions and recommendations about the territory arrangement in Russia.  Journalists and politicians didn’t have a very idea about things, they wrote. And this had place 2 and 20 years ago. And quickly to find, that was already written or told about it earlier simply there is no place.

There are a lot of students who participate in development of a site. And it is so because of new professional activity on teaching in high schools.

Independently developing System of the Internet education is a second problem without which it would be impossible to carry out the first. At least, in such volume and in so deadlines: from the first idea before creation of a site has passed all half-year.

This project despite of provincial structure of founders is undoubtedly all-Russian. Though the local subjects, which in some cases not appropriate to the general information system of a site is necessary for the author for educational process.

It is possible, that some teachers would like to use this site in their educational process, as a minimum.  For this purpose there is no barrier. And to add some materials about their region.
It is possible, but (see Participants).


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